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ACS = Archivio Centrale dello Stato (Roma)
ASMAE = Archivio Storico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri (Roma)
CO = Colonial Office Correspondence (National Archives, Kew)
FO = Foreign Office Correspondence (National Archives, Kew)
GFM = German War Documents Project, University of Michigan Selection (microfilms preserved at the National Archives, Kew)
LF = Documents from the Leo Frobenius Nachlass (Frobenius Institut)
Wk 11 g secr. = Documents in the Bundesarchiv, Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amts, Geheime Akten betreff. den Krieg 1914. Der Weltkrieg Nº 11
MANUSCRIPTS FROM THE DIAFE VII FILES (FROBENIUS INSTITUT DER JOHANN WOLFGANG GOETHE-UNIVERSITÄT, FRANKFURT A.M.)
Frobenius L., Notizbuch I, Rote-Meer-Fahrt, 1915, Nachlass L. Frobenius DIAFE VII, unpublished manuscript, 1915 (LF 314).
Kistenfeger H., Notizbuch I (Tagebuch), Rumänien-Türkei IV.1., Nachlass L. Frobenius DIAFE VII, unpublished manuscript 24.12.1914 – 21.1.1915 (LF 317).
Kistenfeger H., Notizbuch II (Tagebuch), Rumänien-Türkei IV.2., Nachlass L. Frobenius DIAFE VII, unpublished manuscript 21.1. – 4.2. 1915 (LF 319).
Passarge M., Reisebericht II, Rote-Meer-Fahrt, 1915, Nachlass L. Frobenius DIAFE VII, unpublished manuscript 8.2.-15.3.1915 (LF 313).
Aksakal M., The Ottoman Road to War in 1914. The Ottoman Empire and the First World War. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008.
aksakal M., “‛Holy War Made in Germany’? Ottoman Origins of the 1914 Jihad”, War in History, 18/2, 2011, p. 184-199.
Anderson, S., Lawrence in Arabia: War, Deceit, Imperial Folly and the Making of the Modern Middle East, Doubleday, New York, 2013.
Baldinetti, A. The Origins of the Libyan Nation: Colonial Legacy, Exile and the Emergence of a New Nation-State, Routledge, Abingdon, 2010.
Bickel B., Mit Agatha Christie durch die Schluchten des Taurus. Die Bagdadbahn im Spiegel der Literatur und des Reiseberichts, in J. Franzke (ed.), Bagdadbahn und Hedjazbahn. Deutsche Eisenbahngeschichte im Vorderen Orient. Nürnberg, Tümmel Verlag, 2003, p. 120-124.
Biocca D., “La missione Frobenius in Eritrea”, Nuova storia contemporanea No. 14/4, 2010, p. 17-44.
Biocca D., “Casa Passarge. Antonio Gramsci a Roma (1924–1926)”, Nuova storia contemporanea No. 16/1, 2012, p. 17-36.
Braukämper U., “Frobenius as Political Agent: Journey to Eritrea in 1915”, in H. Marcus (ed.), New Trends in Ethiopian Studies. Ethiopia 94. Papers of the 12th International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. Michigan State University 5–10 September 1994. Volume I: Humanities and Human Resources, Lawrenceville, Red Sea Press, 1994, p. 553-561.
Braukämper U., “Im Spannungsfeld zwischen Wissenschaft und politischem Aktivismus. Leo Frobenius als Geheimagent in Nordost-Afrika”, in K.-H. Kohl and E. Platte (eds), Gestalter und Gestalten. 100 Jahre Ethnologie in Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main/Basel, Stroemfeld Verlag, 2006.
Burkhard B. (ed.), Gefangene Bilder. Wissenschaft und Propaganda im Ersten Weltkrieg, (Schriften des historischen Museums Frankfurt Bd. 35), Petersberg, Michael Imhof Verlag, 2014.
Da Riva R., “Lawrence of Arabia’s forerunner. The bizarre enterprise of Leo Frobenius, aka Abdul Kerim Pasha, in Arabia and Eritrea (1914–1915)”, Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes No. 99, 2009, p. 29-111.
Del Boca, A. Gli italiani in Africa orientale, Dall’Unità alla Marcia su Roma, I, Mondadori, Milan 1992 (reprinted: 2014).
Eshete A., “European Political Adventurers in Ethiopia at the turn of the 20th Century”, Journal of Ethiopian Studies No. 12/1, 1974, p. 1-17.
Frobenius L., “Verlauf der vierten Reiseperiode der Deutschen Inner-Afrikanischen Forschungsexpedition”, Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen No. 62, p. 12-16, 58-61, 98-100, 1916a.
Haberland E., Das Frobenius Institut an der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität 1898–1998, Frankfurt a.M., Frobenius-Institut, 1998.
Heine P., “Leo Frobenius als politischer Agent. Ein Beitrag zu seiner Bibliographie”, Paideuma No. 26, 1980, p. 1-5.
Heinrichs H-J., Die fremde Welt, das bin ich. Leo Frobenius, Ethnologe, Forschungsreisende, Abenteuerer, Wuppertal, P. Hammer, 1998.
Hull, I. V., The Entourage of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1888–1918), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1981 (reprinted: 2004).
Ita J. M., “Frobenius in West African History”, Journal of African History No. 13/4, 1972, p. 673-688.
Jensen A. E., “Leo Frobenius. Leben und Werk”, Paideuma No. 1, 1938, p. 45-58.
Kahleyss M., “Muslimische Kriegsgefangene in Deutschland im Ersten Weltkrieg – Ansichten und Absichten”, in G. Höpp and B. Reinwald (eds), Fremdeinsätze. Afrikaner und Asiaten in europäischen Kriegen, 1914–1945, Berlin, Verlag Das Arabische Buch, 2000, p. 79-118.
Koller ch., Von Wilden aller Rassen niedergemetzelt. Die Diskussion um die Verwendung von Kolonialtruppen in Europa zwischen Rassismus, Kolonial- und Militärpolitik (1914–1930), Stuttgart, Franz Steiner Verlag, 2001.
Kuba R., “Ein Ethnologe auf dem Kriegspfad. Leo Frobenius und der erste Weltkrieg”, in B. Burkhard (ed.), Gefangene Bilder. Wissenschaft und Propaganda im Ersten Weltkrieg, (Schriften des historischen Museums Frankfurt Bd. 35), Petersberg, Michael Imhof Verlag, 2014, 102-115.
Lawrence T. E., Seven Pillars of Wisdom. A Triumph, London, Penguin, 1962.
Lüdke, T., Jihad Made in Germany: Ottoman and German Propaganda and Intelligence Operations in the First World War, Münster, Lit & London, Global, 2005.
Lüdke, T., “Germany’s failed pan-islamic propaganda campaign of 1914-1918. Colonialism, Islam and Nationalism”, Orient XXI, L’Orient dans la guerre (1914–1918), 2015 (http://orientxxi.info/l-orient-dans-la-guerre-1914-1918/germany-s-failed-pan-islamic-propaganda-campaign-of-1914-1918,0996)
Marchand S., “Leo Frobenius and the Revolt against the West”, Journal of Contemporary History No. 32/2, 1997, p. 153-170.
Marchand, S. “German Orientalism and the Decline of the West,” Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 145, No. 4 (December 2001), p. 465-473.
McKale D. M., War by Revolution. Germany and Britain in the Middle East in the Era of World War I, Ohio, Kent State University, 1998.
McMeekin S. The Berlin–Baghdad Express. The Ottoman Empire and Germany’s Bid for World Power, Cambridge, Massachusetts, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2010.
Miran, J. Facing the land, facing the sea: commercial transformation and urban dynamics in the Red Sea port of Massawa, 1840s–1900s, Ph. D. Michigan State University, Department of History, 2004.
Moubayed, S. M., Steel and Silk, Cune Press, 2006.
Moubayed, S. M., “Two September Weeks That Saved Damascus in 1918”, Arab Studies Quarterly 37/4 (2015), p. 367-385.
Oberhaus S., “Zum wilden Aufstande entflammen”. Die deutsche Ägyptenpolitik 1914 bis 1918. Ein Beitrag zur Propagandageschichte des Ersten Weltkrieges, Düsseldorf, unpublished dissertation, 2006.
Raouf-Sinno, A., “The Emperor’s visit to the East as Reflected in Contemporary Arabic Journalism”, in H. Sader, T. Sheffler and A. Neuwirth (eds), Baalbek: Images and Documents, 1898-1998, Orient-Institut, Beirut, 1998.
Riesz, J. “Afrikanische Kriegsgefangene in deutschen Lagern während des Ersten Weltkriegs”, in M. Hofmann and R. Morrien (eds), Deutsch-afrikanische Diskurse in Geschichte und Gegenwart: Literatur- und kulturwissenschaftliche Perspektiven, Amsterdamer Beiträge zur neueren Germanistik, Amsterdam, Editions Rodopi, 2012, p. 71-106.
Rogan, E., The Fall of the Ottomans. The Great War in the Middle East, 1914–1920, Allen Lane, 2015.
Rosen, F. “Reviewed work(s): Eine deutsche Gesandtschaft in Abessinien”, Journal of the Royal African Society 7/26 (1908), p. 221.
Scholler H., “German World War I Aims in Ethiopia – the Frobenius-Hall-Mission”, in J. Tubiana (ed.), Modern Ethiopia. From the Accession of Menilek II to the Present. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of Ethiopian Studies. Nice 19–22 December 1977, Rotterdam, Balkema, 1980, p. 303-326.
Schwanitz W. G., “Djihad ‛Made in Germany’: Der Streit um den Heiligen Krieg 1914–1915”, Sozial Geschichte No. 18, 2003, p. 7-34.
Taboada H. G. H., “El fin de un sistema: el imām Hussein y la Primera Guerra Mundial”, Estudios de Asia y África No. 39/1, 2004, p. 117-138.
Ullendorff E., “Some Further Material from the Eugen Mittwoch ‛Nachlass’”, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 53/1, 1990, p. 73-75.
We would like to thank R. Kuba and P. Steigerwald for their help with the new Frobenius material, and M. Strohmeier and Ph. Petriat for their most useful suggestions. Our article is partially based on a previous study (Da Riva, 2009), with some additional information from the archives of the Frobenius Institute. It is also based on documents from ASMAE Archivio Eritrea, b. 730, fasc. “Missione germanica” (Biocca, 2010) and ACS, Ministero dell’Interno, “Ufficio centrale investigativo” (Biocca, 2012). P. Steigerwald and the Frobenius Institut are gratefully acknowledged for providing the graphic material of this article (Fig. 2‑6), and C. Terré for preparing the map of Fig. 1. This paper is based on research conducted under the auspices of the ICREA Academia research Prize of the Generalitat de Catalunya (R. Da Riva).
DIAFE VII, see http://www.frobenius-institut.de/das-institut/geschichte/forschungsreisen (web page visited in July 2016).
Braukämper, 1994, p. 561; McMeekin, 2010, p. 143-152.
Kaiser Wilhelm II had handed over responsibility for strategic operations in Europe to his chief military advisers; however, he remained keen on pursuing covert operations in distant war theatres, to be conducted under his supervision and authority. On his initiatives in WWI see Hull, 1981 (2004), p. 236-266. On Wilhelm’s interest in the “cultural morphology” of Africa and correspondence with Frobenius, see Marchand, 2001, p. 465-473.
Scholler, 1980, p. 319. Karl Bosch had been the “commercial specialist” of the 1905 German Special Mission to Abyssinia (Rosen, 1908, p. 221).
Eshete, 1974, p. 15
Recently published material describes aspects of the German community in Addis Ababa on the wake of the Great War that are not especially positive: Ullendorff, 1990, 73-75.
McKale, War by Revolution, pp. 156ff.
Prime Minister Crispi, held responsible for Italy’s demise by both Parliament and public opinion, resigned. On the battle at Adwa and the ensuing policy towards Ethiopia see Del Boca, 1992 (2014).
Italy formally withdrew from the Triple alliance on 26 April 1915.
When the Sanūsī-s conducted operations against British forces in Egypt but also engaged the Italians in Libya, Rome dispatched additional troops and withdrew from portions of Fizzān. Angry diplomatic notes were addressed to Berlin, while Ambassador Hans von Flotow strove to persuade his Italian counterparts of “unquestionable German loyalty.” A disturbing episode contributed to exacerbating bilateral relations. Ignoring official diplomatic warnings, the German government authorized special agent Otto Mannessmann to travel to Libya and arrange delivery of additional military aid to Aḥmad Al-Sharīf, chief of the Sanūsī forces positioned along the Egyptian border. Tipped by intelligence reports, Italian port authorities in Trieste seized a German freighter bound for Libya with military equipment destined to Al-Sharīf. Rome demanded that Berlin immediately call off any “act of interference into the peaceful internal affairs of the colony”. The nationalist press also charged Berlin with “deception”; German agents disguised as “experts”, “entrepreneurs” and even “archaeologists” now conspired in a deliberate attempt to drag Italy into war.
Scholler, “German World War”, p. 305, and 309-310.
After two decades colonial rule, Eritrea and Italy's possessions on the west coast of the Red Sea had gradually extended from the port of Assab to Maṣawa‘, which in 1890 became the capital of the “primitive colony”. On Eritrea and Maṣawa‘, see miran, 2004.
Congo (1904–06); Mali, Burkina Faso and Togo (1907–09); Morocco, Algeria and Tunis (1910); Northern Cameroon and the area around the confluence of the rivers Niger and Benue (1910–12); Sudan (1912); and Algeria (1912–14). He founded the German Society for Research in Inner Africa in 1904.
Heinrichs, 1998 p. 11. On the Frobenius Institute, see Haberland, 1998. For Frobenius’ contributions to the field of ethnography, see Marchand, 1997 and Jensen, 1938 for his obituary.
Braukämper, 1994, p. 559-560; Braukämper, 2006. On the work of Frobenius in Africa, see Ita, 1972. See also Kuba, 2014.
During the war, and after the Red Sea expedition, Frobenius spent some months in Rumania as director of a camp of Muslim POWs from North and Central Africa. The Institute for Cultural Morphology (since 1946 the Frobenius Institut), which he founded in Munich in 1920, moved to Frankfurt am Main in 1925 and became part of the Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität. There, he took up a lectureship in culture and ethnology, and later became honorary professor and director of the Frankfurt Metropolitan Museum of Ethnology.
Heinrichs, 1998, p. 35.
Wk 11 g secr. II 55.
Heine, 1980, p. 1.
McKale, 1998, p. 46-50 and 62; Schwanitz, 2003; McMeekin, 2010, p. 85-99, 141-152, and 153-229; see lüdke, 2005, 2015; aksakal, 2011; rogan, 2015.
Oberhaus, 2006, p. 220+88.
British National Archives, Kew, Foreign Office, (FO) 882/2 143-144.
Moritz’s objectives and itinerary were very similar to DIAFE VII’s: he left Damascus disguised as an Arab, with the intention of crossing the Red Sea to reach Sudan (McKale, 1998, p. 62). See also Oberhaus, 2006, p. 166.
Musil “speaks very good Arabic and looks like a Bedouin” FO 371/1971 161. Musil was entrusted with the organisation of a “Beduinen-Action” against England with Tschirschky and Mannesmann, and received very generous financing from the Austrian government (Wk 11 g secr. I 17; see also Wk 11 g secr. I 29-31). His expedition, although not as disastrous at DIAFE VII’s, was not an unqualified success (Wk 11 g secr. IV 125).
McKale, 1998, p. 51, 59f., 62, 172ff., 214f.; see also Taboada, 2004, 119f.
McKale, 1998, p. 63. Hilgendorff was assumed to be carrying ammunition and explosives from Syria to Egypt (FO 371/1971 83-84). See also Martin Strohmeier’s article in this issue.
FO 371/1971 140.
McKale, 1998, pp. 87ff.
Wk 11 g secr. IV 109.
Wk 11 g secr. I 116.
Wk 11 g secr. I 49.
Heine, 1980, p. 1f; Braukämper, 1994, p. 557. See also La Tribuna dated 9 April 1915, LF 626: Wk 11 g secr. III 126 and Wk 11 g secr. I 110. Of their original equipment, three boxes with clothing remained in addition to eight boxes containing “preserves”, which Frobenius gave to the Eritrean Red Cross (Wk 11 g secr. IV 77-78).
Some details on the equipment can be found in a letter from the Frobenius legacy in the archives of the Frobenius Institut (LF 858), which was drafted in Bucharest on 18 September, 1917, more than two years after the end of the mission. The letter refers to the return transport of 65 “pieces of equipment of the Privy Councillor Frobenius from his Expedition to Turkey” with a list of their contents. The transport was to be sent to Germany and escorted by a sergeant and two soldiers.
Braukämper, 1994, p. 556.
In the final accounts of the expedition, Frobenius claimed to have received 95,758.92 marks, and to have spent 96,839.09, indicating that 1,080.17 marks remained outstanding. See Wk 11 g secr. IV 73-79.
Frobenius had hoped to counteract British “food propaganda” supplying rice to the Arabian coastal areas by boat. Shortly after reaching Maṣawa‘, he made contact with the crews of several German ships that had taken refuge in the port (which was in neutral territory), and he proposed using these ships to transport rice and other foodstuffs to al-Ḥudayda. The food was in fact the cargo of these boats, and he proposed that the Auswärtiges Amt should buy the cargo and deliver it to Arabia. The German Embassy in Constantinople had been informed of the sacks of rice in Maṣawa‘, but Ambassador Wangenheim made it very clear that the Embassy had no intention of taking responsibility for any payments. Frobenius, unable to contact Berlin from Maṣawa‘, failed to receive the sum of 25,000 lire from the Foreign Office that he needed to carry out this enterprise, and the Hamburg-Amerika Line (through Captain Tutt) had to lend him the money. Frobenius’ arguments must have been entirely convincing because the shipping companies did not hesitate to offer him their help. See Wk 11 g secr. 11 III 6, 9, 12, 14, 73. On the issue of the rice, see Da Riva, 2009, p. 84-88.
Wk 11 g secr. IV 77.
Wk 11 g secr. I 76.
The title was awarded on 4 December 1914 (Wk 11 g secr. IV 14). Frobenius signed most of his reports as Kaiserlicher Deutscher Geheimrat as in Wk 11 g secr. IV 26, see also Heine, 1980, p. 2; Heinrichs, 1998, p. 69.
Wk 11 g secr. I 100, dated 14 December 1914, see also ibid. 83.
Braukämper, 1994, p. 556.
Eshete, 1974, p. 12. A plenipotentiary Minister corresponds to ‛Ambassador’.
Von Wangenheim could not conceal his irritation at Frobenius’ impatience regarding the request for the title of Pasha (Wk 11 g secr. II 56). In a report sent from Asmara, dated 23 March 1915 (Ibid., III 108), Frobenius complained about the bureaucratic problems which had delayed the official recognition of this title.
Braukämper, 1994, p. 556.
Wk 11 g secr. III 108.
Von Wangenheim to von Bethmann-Hollweg (02 May 1915; Wk 11 g secr. IV 29).
Braukämper, 1994, p. 557.
Wk 11 g secr. I 66.
Wk 11 g secr. III 70.
FO 371/2227 264.
Eshete, 1974, p. 12-13.
Braukämper, 1994, p. 556-557. This source is probably FO 371/2349 60548.
Passarge’s complex figure and is analysed in depth in Biocca, 2010, p. 32, 43.
The scholar Heinrich Scholler offers a different list and refers to a document from the Italian “Ministero delle Colonie” which contains variants regarding the spelling. See Scholler, 1980, p. 320, his source is probably telegram FO 371/2227 258, sent from Rodd to the Foreign Office on 15 March 1915. The Sudan Intelligence Report March 1915 contains an item entitled “A Special Mission from the German Emperor” and cites the names of five Europeans and thirteen “Orientals”. Some minor variations in the spelling of the names can also be appreciated in this list. See FO 371/2349 60548.
Meemun was a special envoy from the Turkish government whose mission it was to help Frobenius reach Addis Ababa (Wk 11 g secr. II 56).
These men were actually Moroccan prisoners of war who disguised themselves as pilgrims on their way home crossing the Red Sea (Wk 11 g secr. II 119). On North African prisoners of war, see Kahleyss, 2000; Koller, 2001; Riesz, 2012.
Kistenfeger, 1914, p. 4.
Kistenfeger, 1914, p. 40. Photo: Frobenius Institut FoK007_005-8010.
Frobenius, 1916a, p. 98. These were the men officially engaged with Frobenius on the expedition, according to the archives of the DIAFE VII (Haberland, 1998, p. 37).
McKale, 1998, p. 62.
Wk 11 g secr. II 127-128.
On the Italian conquest of Fizzān see Baldinetti, 2010.
McKale, 1998, 54. German ambassador von Wangenheim raised no objections, for “he did not intend to obstruct the progress of the mission” (Wk 11 g secr. II 56).
Wk 11 g secr. II 55-56.
Wk 11 g secr. II IV 1. Löytved also paid Hall the sum of 800 marks a month, of which 200 marks went to Hall’s wife in Lausanne. See Wk 11 g secr. II 54.
Wk 11 g secr., III 144-145.
McKale, 1998, 55.
Idem, p. 58.
J. Nr. 6385, in LF 625. Before setting out, Frobenius sent a very detailed report of the political situation in the Ottoman Empire. See Wk 11 g secr. II 4.
Wk 11 g secr. II 22. The subsequent development of the mission shows that von Bülow received few details about the expedition, as British intelligence would also discover (FO 371/2227 274).
See La Tribuna 8 April 1915 (copy Wk 11 g secr. III 126).
Eshete, 1974, p. 13 considers Berlin the starting point.
Frobenius, 1915, p. 7.
On the railway, see Bickel, 2003.
Kistenfeger, 1914–1915, p. 51, 57. Hotel Victoria, owned by Aḥmad ‘Izzat al-‘Abd, was the largest in Damascus, see Moubayed, 2006, p. 95-97. The German Emperor had been a notable guest during his visit to Damascus in 1898, see Raouf-Sinno, 1998. On the hotel and Lawrence, see Anderson, 2013; Moubayed, 2015.
FO 371/2227 279.
Wk 11 g secr. II 49.
Passarge had reached Syria using an Italian (counterfeit) passport (Biocca, 2010, p. 43).
Rodd to the Foreign Office dated 9 April 1915, FO 371/2227 279.
FO 195/2459 379; FO 195/2460 4242.
Interview given to La Tribuna 9 April 1915, Wk 11 g secr. III 126.
Wk 11 g secr. II 55.
La Tribuna, 9 April 1915, op. cit.
Eshete, 1974, p. 12.
Wk 11 g secr. II 26.
“Billi, the numerous tribe with headquarters in Wejh [...]. Their paramount Sheikh, Suleiman Rifada, was temporizing, being really hostile [to Feisal]; for the Turks had made him Pasha and decorated him [...]” (Lawrence, 1962, p. 119.). Lawrence called Sulaymān “our old nuisance of El Wejh” (ibid, p. 389).
Wk 11 g secr. II 95.
Wk 11 g secr. III 126.
See Lawrence, 1962, p. 135-136 and 169.
Wk 11 g secr. III 83.
Dhaw is a generic term used to describe different types of vessel which vary in their size and shape, it refers to lateen-rigged sailing vessels, with a raised poop, a raked stem, and one or two masts. They are used along the coasts of the Indian Ocean: from Mozambique to Philippines (J. Aznar, Museu Marítim of Barcelona, personal communication).
Wk 11 g secr. II 123ff.
Taboada, 2004, p. 118.
McMeekin, 2010, p. 147-148; FO 882/15 p. 10.
Wk 11 g secr. II 126-128.
See McMeekin, 2010, p. 147; McKale, 1998, p. 38, 61-64.
Regierungsrat Hermann Kersting (b. 1863) was a German diplomat, doctor and colonial officer. (http://www.ub.bildarchiv-dkg.uni-frankfurt.de/Bildprojekt/Lexikon/Standardframeseite.php?suche=Kersting+, web page visited in April 2016).
Wk 11 g secr. II 128.
Passarge, 1915, p. 15. Raw hides were not considered contraband in September 1914, but this situation changed with the outbreak of the war. See FO 882/15 p. 291.
Wk 11 g secr. II 118ff.
Bericht VIII: Wk 11 g secr. III 78ff.
Wk 11 g secr. III 86.
La Tribuna 9 April 1915; Wk 11 g secr. III 126 (copy in LF 626).
Wk 11 g secr. II 119.
FO 371/22227 275.
FO 371/2227 280, dated 9 April 1915. Unfortunately we do not know how Rodd discovered the details of the hiding place.
Wk 11 g secr. II 118-19. Other descriptions of the encounter are contained in the personal diary of Mario Passarge (Passarge, 1915), and in the report written by Captain Tutt, Wk 11 g secr. III 8-9.
FO 371/2227 275.
Wk 11 g secr. III 86. Other descriptions of the encounter with the French ship are contained in the personal diary of Mario Passarge (Reisebericht II), where events of 13 February are recorded.
Wk 11 g secr. 11 II 118; FO 371/2227 234.
Governor Salvago Raggi and Ambassador Colli di Felizzano were careful not to disclose in writing the source of the information acquired on Frobenius (Biocca, 2010, p. 35)
Biocca, 2010, p. 35-36.
Wk 11 g secr. 11 III 101; ibid., 8-10, 72-74. Tutt seems to have played the role of guide to Frobenius and his colleagues; he even took them to Asmara to meet the Governor (Ibid., 10).
Wk 11 g secr. II 112. A detailed narrative of the events in Maṣawa‘ is in Biocca, 2010, p. 32-42.
FO 371/2227 225.
FO 371/2227 262.
FO 371/2349 60548.
FO 371/2227 246ff.
FO 371/2227 227f.
FO 371/2227 231-232, dated 25 February 1915.
FO 371/2227 250 and 251, dated 15 March 1915.
Wk 11 g secr. III 123.
ASMAE Archivio Eritrea: telegram sent from Asmara on 27 March 1915 (Biocca, 2010).
FO 371/2227 266. With the exception of the Somali Hassan, whose expulsion from the colony posed some diplomatic problems (Biocca, 2010, p. 41).
FO 371/2227 275.
Wk 11 g secr. III 56.
Wk 11 g secr. III 116.
Wk 11 g secr. III 123; ASMAE Archivio Eritrea, 29 March 1915.
Copies of the articles can be found in Wk 11 g secr. III 126.
La Tribuna 8 April 1915, Wk 11 g secr. III 126.
Wk 11 g secr. III 62-70.
In 1918 Passarge applied for permission to re-enter Italy together with his family. All but Mario’s brother Willibald were allowed to establish their residence in Rome. Records of the interviews and other related documents are in Acs, Ufficio centrale investigativo, b. 46, fasc.: “Passarge Giorgio.”
In 1924 Antonio Gramsci, Secretary general of the Italian communist party, moved into the comfortable home of the Passarges in Rome and lived there until November 1926, when he was arrested. Mario Passarge left Rome for Berlin in 1934 to take up a position within “NW7”, the intelligence office of I.G. Farben. Thereafter Passarge and Senise exchanged letters and met in Rome several times until September 1943, when Senise was arrested and deported to Dachau. In the records of Italian Polizia politica (Ufficio centrale investigativo) Passarge is formally labeled: “German spy” (Biocca, 2012)
DIAFE VIII. See http://www.frobenius-institut.de/das-institut/geschichte/forschungsreisen (web page visited July 2016).
FO 141/787 19 (document from Foreign Office and Foreign and Commonwealth Office: Embassy and Consulates, Egypt: General Correspondence).
Colonial Office 822/3/12.Haut de page